Everybody knows sentences like "Sit still!" or "Listen to me!". Especially children fidget around, are inattentive or sometimes act rashly. Also some adults are restless or talk constantly. This is not unusual. But if this behavior gets out of hand and causes serious problems, a A ufmerksamkeits d efizit- H yperactivity s ADHD – a disorder of the mind. Here you can find out what an ADHS is.
At a glance
ADHD is a common mental illness. It usually remains for life and can be very stressful.
The condition can have a variety of signs: Inattention, excessive activity and impulsivity. With ADHD these exceed a normal level.
Treatment includes procedures for those affected, parents, and educators and teachers. These include: Counseling and education, training, psychotherapy, and medications. Together with your doctor or psychotherapist, you decide which treatment is best for your child or yourself.
Frequency and cause
ADHD is a mental illness that begins in childhood: about 5 out of 100 children are affected in Germany. The symptoms may decrease or change with age, but they often do not disappear completely: About 50 to 80 out of 100 children and adolescents with ADHD still have to deal with it as adults.
There are many causes of ADHD. However, it is not yet fully understood how this occurs. Experts assume that above all hereditary factors and influences from the environment contribute to it.
What exactly is meant by ADHD?
People with ADHD often stand out compared to their peers. Because their behavior and inattention repeatedly go far beyond the "normal" beyond what is "normal". This can lead to difficulties in the family, at school or at work. In addition, the disease can cause stress and strain on the nerves of all those involved – the affected person, parents, educators, teachers and colleagues.
The three main characteristics are:
Inattention: For example, children with ADHD are easily distracted, quickly lose interest in an activity, are often scatterbrained, or have trouble following explanations.
RestlessnessAffected children often have difficulty sitting still. This can include simply standing up in the classroom or climbing over chairs and desks.
ImpulsivityDue to the disease, children often react uncontrollably and very spontaneously. For example, they constantly blurt out the answer to a question before it is finished. In addition, they often find it difficult to wait.
Experts only speak of ADHD when scientific criteria are met. The following must apply:
A minimum number of signs from the areas of inattention, agitation, and impulsivity are present. These last for at least 6 months.
The problems started before the age of 7. In the second half of life.
The signs show up in several situations, such as at home and at school or at work.
Those affected suffer from their symptoms or are restricted in their daily lives as a result of them.
There are no other mental illnesses that explain the behavior.
How is ADHD diagnosed?
One place to start is a medical or psychotherapeutic practice. First there is a conversation. This involves, for example, which ADHD signs occur and how strong they are. Life history, problems at school or at work, and other illnesses are also discussed. If children are affected, parents, educators or teachers can provide important information. Therefore, they should also be consulted.
Physical examinations are added to rule out other disorders. Tests to measure attention, for example, or questionnaires can provide further clues.
What the treatment looks like?
Experts recommend a treatment consisting of several components. Important are:
- Counseling: At the beginning, affected persons, parents, kindergartens and schools receive comprehensive information. Knowledge about the disease helps to better deal with ADHD.
- Parent, educator or teacher training: Here one learns to understand and help affected children and adolescents. There are individual and group trainings.
- Behavioral therapy: Here, affected individuals and their families can learn techniques to manage behavior to change it. This should help to cope better with everyday life.
- Medication: If the diagnosis is certain, they can be used under certain conditions. Regular check-ups are important during treatment. So-called medicines Stimulants as well as the active substances Atomoxetine and Guanfacin in question. The best known ADHD drug is Methylphenidate. It is a stimulant and can be misused as a stimulant. All medications can have side effects, such as loss of appetite, weight loss, drowsiness, or blood pressure fluctuations.
As a rule, treatment is provided on an outpatient basis. Which procedures are right for your situation depends mainly on the severity of the illness and the age of the person or persons affected. Their needs and circumstances also matter. Counseling, training, and psychotherapy should be provided, especially for children before the age of 6. Be offered to people under the age of 18 or with mild ADHD. In severe ADHD, medication is the focus of treatment.