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|The title of this article is ambiguous. For other meanings, see Beer (disambiguation).|
In a narrower sense Beer a beverage containing alcohol and carbon dioxide, obtained by fermentation usually from the basic ingredients water, malt and hops. For a controlled triggering of the alcoholic fermentation, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is added, more rarely lactic acid bacteria are inoculated in a second step. Other ingredients can be outside Germany fruits, herbs such as Grut or spices. The alcohol content of common types of beer in Germany and Austria is usually between 4.5% and 6%.
In a broader sense, beer is any alcoholic beverage made from saccharified starch without the use of a distillation process (chicha). The distinction from wine is that for wines, sugars are fermented from plant (fructose) or animal sources (for example, honey), while the starting material for fermentation in beer is always starch.
Usually the sugar is obtained from the starch of cereals (barley, rye, rice, wheat, corn), more rarely starch is obtained from potatoes or other vegetables such as peas. The Japanese sake, although often referred to as "ricewineThe term "Pilsner" is used to refer to the still unhopped brew, and therefore also falls under the category of beer-like beverages.
About the origin of the word Beer there are no definite findings. Presumably it comes from biber (lat. "drink") from. A word no longer in use for beer is the Germanic al (cf. English Ale, Danish øl, Swedish oil or Finnish olut), whereby it concerned the still unhopped brew.
The earliest evidence of beer is from the ancient Mesopotamian region. The Egyptians fermented half-baked bread with water and thus got a kind of beer. With the Romans the beer was called Cervisia, after the goddess of crops, Ceres. The Romans considered it a barbaric drink. The Celts knew beer under the name Korma.
In the Middle Ages, beer was still brewed from very many different ingredients. Only with the introduction of regulated brewing by monastery breweries was the Grut gradually replaced by hops. At that time, beer was also considered a suitable drink for children, as it had a lower alcohol content than today and was largely germ-free due to the boiling of the beer wort, which could not be said of drinking water at that time. It was also, because of its caloric content, an important supplement to the often scarce food, since even beer made from inferior grain was halay edible ("liquid bread").  In view of the high consumption of beer in the Middle Ages and the early modern period, beer was of great interest to the municipal treasury and the state tax authorities that arose around 1500. As early as the late Middle Ages, production and sales taxes were levied on beer almost everywhere in the empire. At that time, beer was brewed with top-fermenting yeast, the so-called "Oberzeug".
Beer cellars existed in many places in natural caves. When beer could be stored at low temperatures in cold storage houses developed by the Viennese brewer Adolf Ignaz Mautner under the patent name "Normal-Bierlagerkeller System Mautner," the bottom-fermented brewing method soon became established. As early as 1841, bottom-fermented lager was brewed by Anton Dreher in Schwechat and by Adolf Ignaz Mautner in Vienna; this heralded the era of bottom-fermented beers.
An important point in the history of beer brewing is the "invention" of the Pilsner brewing method (Pilsner Brauart). It originated from the already famous Bavarian brewing style which was based mainly on only lightly kilned malt and slow fermentation by storage in cold caves and deep cellars. Josef Groll brewed on 5. October 1842 the first brew in the Pilsner brewing style. This was first used on 11. Pilsner Urquell was first served to the public on November 1, 1842, thus starting the worldwide triumph of this beer speciality, which is marketed as Original Pilsner Urquell.
In Germany, bottom-fermented beer was brewed in accordance with the Beer Tax Act, colloquially known as the Purity Law, until 1993. It included parts of the Bavarian Purity Law of 1516, according to which only water, hops and barley were allowed as ingredients. Since 1993, the production of beer in Germany has been regulated by the provisional Beer Act (BGBl. I 1993 S. 1400-1401) regulated. Beer is today the most consumed alcoholic beverage in Germany and many other countries.
In brewing, the beer ingredients water, malt and hops are mixed together and sometimes biochemically altered by yeast. After malt is made from grain (usually barley), it is milled. The actual brewing process begins with mashing. In this process, water is heated to about 60 °C, then the crushed malt is added and the resulting mash is heated to about 75 °C with constant stirring, depending on the method used. At different resting temperatures, enzymes convert the starch from the malt into malt sugar. Alternatively, parts of the mash are boiled, which leads to a physical gelatinization of the starch. An iodine test is then used to determine whether the dissolved starch is completely saccharified. The mash is then fermented in a lauter tun Purified. The spent malt and Seasoning (the liquid, fermentable part of the mash) are separated from each other. The wort is rinsed out of the spent grains by hot water pours and then boiled with hops in the boiling pan. The brewer calls the following process Ausschlagen. This involves pumping the brew from the wort kettle into a whirlpool or through a filter to separate the coagulated protein and other suspended solids from the cast wort. Finally, the liquid, now called wort, is cooled in a cooler to the optimum fermentation temperature and, depending on the type of beer, the appropriate yeast culture is added. Top-fermenting yeast ferments at temperatures between 18 °C and 24 °C, bottom-fermenting yeast at 8 °C to 14 °C. During alcoholic fermentation, the yeast converts the sugar dissolved in the wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Some of this gas remains bound as carbon dioxide in the finished beer under pressure. After the main fermentation, which lasts about a week, the young beer must continue to ferment and be stored for another four to six weeks. The matured beer is usually filtered again and finally bottled, kegged or canned.
Age restriction on purchase
Beer may not be sold in public in Germany to persons under 16 years of age because of its alcohol content, unless young people are accompanied by a person authorized to have custody of them. 
In Austria, there is no uniform law for the protection of minors, but the age limit is 16 years in all federal provinces.  
The legal regulation of age restriction in Switzerland is a matter for the cantons. In most cantons, the sale of beer to young people under 16 is prohibited. In the canton of Ticino, no alcohol may be sold to minors at all.  The cantons of Bern,  Zug and Basel-Landschaft  discussed a general ban on alcohol sales to young people under 18 years of age. However, the ban was not implemented.
Specific to the situation in Switzerland is that the two largest retailers in Switzerland – Migros and Coop – voluntarily exercise a very restrictive alcohol practice. Migros (but not various subsidiaries) does not sell any alcohol products, while Coop does not sell alcohol to minors. 
Samples of the bottled beer are regularly taken at the breweries and subjected to a sensory evaluation. A distinction is made between
- Taste: bitter, salty, sweet, sour, full-bodied, tart, mild,
- Odor: aromatic fruity, fragrant floral, resinous/nutty, cereal-like, caramel-like, soapy, sulfurous, musty,
- Appearance: clear, bright, opal, cloudy, and
The aim, as with the chemical-technical parameters monitored throughout the brewing process, is to ensure consistent quality for the individual products and to detect defects in good time. If deviations from the various quality standards of the respective brewery occur, an attempt is made to achieve the operating standards by blending with other batches.
Sensory tests are also carried out when comparing different beer types and beer brands. In addition, reference is often made to the Variety- and region-specific purity respected. This is often divided into Antrunk, Middle part and Finish. One of the most internationally known beer tasters was the Briton Michael Jackson. Comparable to wine tasting, there is also beer tasting for a wider audience.
Classification of beers
Beers are classified according to different criteria.
Legislative classification according to original wort content
Based on tax and food law considerations, the legislature divides beers into different groups. As a rule, either the alcohol content or the original wort content is used to judge the beer’s quality.
The original wort content indicates how much fermentable extract is contained in the wort. The original wort is determined at the end of the boiling process in the wort kettle, immediately before knocking out by means of an extract spindle. This value is expressed in weight or percent by weight. This means that a beer with 12% original wort contains 120 grams of extract in 1000 grams of liquid. As a rule of thumb, the original gravity divided by three gives the alcohol content, since the extract is broken down during fermentation in roughly equal parts to carbon dioxide, alcohol and unfermentable substances.
Beer types are the valid tax-legal subdivision used in Germany, which is fixed only at the original wort content.
- Simple beer with an original wort of 1.5% to 6.9%,
- draught beer with an original wort of 7.0% to 10.9,
- Full-bodied beer with an original wort of 11.0% to 15.9%,
- Strong beer with an original wort of at least 16.0%,
- Mixed beer beverages are beers with additions of soft drinks or fruit juices as well as exotic additives such as tequila flavoring or energy drinks
- Luckenbiere are all beers that lie between the old, pre-1993 classifications and were not allowed to be brewed in the past. These are beers with the contents between 0.0% to 2.5%, 5.0% to 7.0%, 8.0% to 11.0% and 14.0% to 16.0%. Only with the new beer tax regulation, in which the original wort is directly decisive, are these also permitted.
In Austria, the following classifications apply:
- Draught beer with 9.0 % to 10.0 % original wort,
- Draught beer with 10.0 % to 12.0 % original wort,
- Full beer with 12.0% to 15.0% original wort, the most commonly drunk beer in Austria (such as Pils, lager or Marzenbier),
- Special beer with an original wort of at least 13.0 % and
- Strong beer with at least 16.0 % original wort, usually more. This beer has a correspondingly high alcohol content (such as Bock, Easter, Whitsun, Christmas beers, Porter).
In Switzerland, the subject designations for beer are: 
- Lager beer with 10.0 % to 12.0 % original wort,
- Special beer (Swiss term for Pils, see there) with 11.5% to 14.0% original gravity,
- Strong beer with at least 14.0 % original wort,
- Light beer with an alcohol content of up to 3.0% by volume and
- low-carbohydrate beer with an original wort content of 8.0 % to 9.0 %, an alcohol content not exceeding 4.5 % and a carbohydrate content not exceeding 7.5 g per liter.
Types of beer according to the type of yeast used
The following types of beer are distinguished by the type of yeast used.
- Berliner Weisse
- Spelt beer
- Emmer beer
- Oat beer
- Kolsch and Wieb
- Rye beer
- Wheat beer
- Export beer
- Lager beer
- Munich Dark
- Red beer
The name top-fermented beer is based on the fact that in top-fermented beers, the yeast is (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) rose to the surface during fermentation in classic brewing processes. In modern brewing processes, however, it sinks to the bottom at the end of fermentation, like bottom-fermenting yeast. The higher fermentation temperatures required for top fermentation (15 °C to 22 °C) lead to increased formation of fruit esters and higher alcohols by the yeast. These often give the beers a fruity aroma. Top-fermented beers were often marketed in the past without storage directly after primary fermentation. They were unrounded and generally have a short shelf life. Nowadays, storage is similar to that used for bottom-fermented beers.
Bottom fermented beers
In bottom-fermented beers, the yeast sinks (S. carlsbergensis) after the fermentation process to the bottom of the fermentation tank. They are, in a sense, "aged" beers, which require a certain period of maturation, but also have a longer shelf life than the top-fermented ones. Its production requires cooling with temperatures of less than 10 °C. This is possible throughout the year only since the invention of the refrigeration machine. This is why, for example, Marzen used to be brewed only until March, from where it gets its name.
Spontaneous fermented beers
No yeast is added to spontaneously fermented beers. Instead, the local yeast spores flying freely in the air are used in the open fermentation vat to stimulate fermentation. It is the oldest way of bringing the wort to fermentation and dates back to the time when the yeast fungus was unknown to humans. Spontaneous fermented beers include:
- Smoked beer
represents a speciality. It can be brewed both bottom-fermented and top-fermented. It is made with the addition of smoked malt, which gives it its smoky flavor. Rauchbier is particularly widespread in the region around Bamberg.
is a type of beer for the production of which both top-fermented and bottom-fermented yeast is used: Top-fermenting yeast is used for the wheat beer component and bottom-fermenting yeast for the pilsner component. Both components are first produced separately, final fermentation and maturation then take place together. Weissbierpils combines the malty, sparkling and fruity taste of wheat beer with the refreshing properties of pilsner beer.
- Home brew
is the beer that the home brewers collect from the brewery in their own barrels as a young beer and finish at home. House brew was also added for the workers of the brewery as a deputation.
So-called non-alcoholic beer usually still contains a small amount of residual alcohol. This ranges from 0.02% to 0.5%, depending on the production method used. Most fruit juices naturally contain comparable amounts of alcohol due to fermentation processes. Beers with 0.0% have only been available since 2006. 
An outdated production method for non-alcoholic beer is to stop the fermentation process before any significant amount of alcohol can form, as is done with malt beer. The more modern process is dialysis, where alcohol is subsequently removed from a normal beer by reverse osmosis through a membrane. A combination of reverse osmosis and thin film distillation is optimal, where the ethanol is distilled off from the permeate of ethanol and water that has passed through the membrane, and the water that remains is recycled back into the concentrate that remains behind the membrane, along with any additional flavorings. Non-alcoholic beer currently has a market share of about three percent.
Mixed beer beverages
Beer is also offered mixed with other beverages. Mostly mixed with soft drinks or fruit juices. As a rule, they consist of at least 50% beer. Today, these mixed beverages are increasingly being marketed commercially as finished products in order to prevent declining beer sales. For a long time, however, blends have been known that were prepared by the landlord in the pub, for example. These include Stange, Radler or Alsterwasser made from beer with lemonade.
Beer consumption and brewing industry
In 2009, beer consumption in the EU amounted to 359 million hectoliters. According to "The Brewers of Europe", this corresponded to a drop of 15 million. hl (-4%) compared to the previous year. 66 m. hl were exported from the EU. 
"The Brewers of Europe estimate that the sales of the 2800 European breweries amounted to 39 billion. Euro. Among these were 1247 German breweries, of which almost 1000 have a beer output below 50.000 hl per year. For 2008, the Federal Statistical Office gave the number of 1319 breweries, 1193 of which produced less than 50 percent of the total.000 hl in the year remained. This includes a large number of microbreweries below 5.000 hl (963), which account for the diversity of beer varieties in Germany. 
It is followed by Austria with 140 breweries (of which about 60 are home breweries established since 1980), Belgium with 115 breweries and Poland with 65 breweries. In total, the consumption of beer in Europe is approx. 400 million. hl, which puts production ahead of China at 250 million hl. hl and the USA with 230 million. hl is the largest in the world.
- 1 Data for 2008, as no data yet for 2009
In the first half of 2004, 51.8 million hl of beer were sold in Germany, 0.3 million hl more than in the same period of the previous year.  Not including sales of non-alcoholic beers and malt beer as well as beer imported from non-EU countries. Mixed beer beverages accounted for 1.3 million hl of beer sales in the first half of 2004  . 87% of beer sales in the first half of 2004 were for German domestic consumption and were taxed. Tax-free sales amounted to 6.7 million hl of beer:  5.1 million hl of which went to EU countries, 1.5 mio. hl to third countries and 103.627 hl as a home drink to the employees of breweries. 
According to a study by the business consulting firm KPMG in May 2005, German breweries expect a drop in sales of around five percent by 2009. Beer brewed in the Pilsen style is particularly affected. Growth expected only for mixed drinks such as beer-cola or Radler.
While a German citizen drank 127.5 liters of beer in 1999, the figure was only 115.5 liters in 2004 and as low as 112.5 liters in 2007  ). In Bavaria, in particular, the average is higher at 155.4 l. In the wine regions of the Palatinate, on the other hand, a lower average of 69.1 l per capita is recorded. 14% of German men drink beer on a daily basis, compared with 1.7% of women.  According to the German Federal Statistical Office, consumption of alcoholic beer in Germany has continued to decline annually since 1992, from 115 million hl to 88 million hl in 2007.  In 2008, the National Consumption Survey II determined a consumption of 92.3 hl of beer among men and 14.2 hl of beer among women per year.
Tourist routes such as the Aischgrunder Bierstrasse and the Bayerische Bierstrasse open up the tourist marketing of beer and the brewing industry.
In different parts of Germany, Austria, and the rest of the world, regional names for different sizes of beer glasses, beer bottles, beer kegs, and beer cans have become established, some of which have their origins in old (sometimes regional) units of measurement.
Health and risks
As an alcoholic beverage, beer can cause a strong psychological dependence and later also physical dependence – in other words, it can become addictive – and lead to alcoholism. Since in many regions the consumption of beer and wine, even in larger quantities, is socially accepted and thus not considered conspicuous behavior, addictive behavior tends to be recognized later by those affected and their environment than is the case with other substances.
The Berlin Regional Court has granted the Deutscher Brauer-Bund e.V. (DBB) banned from advertising positive health-related effects of alcoholic beverages following a lawsuit by consumer associations in a competition case. The DBB had claimed on its website that beer has a beauty-promoting effect, that it has preventive effects against heart disease, gall and urinary stones, and osteoporosis, and that it lowers the risk of dementia and diabetes. The advertising in question is not compatible with the rules of a European regulation on nutrition and health claims for foodstuffs.  The DBB has appealed against the ruling.
For people with gluten intolerance (celiac disease), virtually all conventionally brewed beers are unsuitable for consumption due to the gluten contained in the brewing grain. Gluten-free beer can be brewed from cereals that do not contain gluten. Corn, rice, millet, buckwheat or sorghum, for example, are used for this purpose. Such beers are brewed by some small breweries.
Media often mention that moderate beer drinking is beneficial to health according to the results of some international scientific studies. They rarely mention that these findings are controversial. There is much evidence to suggest that the harms and risks of alcohol (a cellular toxin) outweigh the positive benefits of active substances in beer, even at low levels of consumption. Regular consumption of alcohol increases the risk of developing cancer.  Even small amounts of alcohol, consumed daily, are thought to worsen memory performance. Here, too, there are a large number of contradictory expert reports and opinions.
For a long time, 80 grams of alcohol per day was considered to be the upper limit of moderate alcohol consumption. In recent years, people used body weight as a basis and considered a consumption of 1 g of alcohol per kg of body weight per day as the upper limit for a healthy and adult person. However, this value also depends on gender, personal constitution and other factors. Recently, a daily consumption of 30 ml corresponding to 25 g of alcohol has been considered a safe upper limit for men. This amount of alcohol is contained in about 0.7 liters of full-bodied beer or in one liter of light beer, respectively. Women should be content with 20% less. According to a 2005 study , the harmful effects of alcohol are always said to outweigh the sometimes partial benefits of low alcohol consumption, so there is no "safe" upper limit.
Heart and circulation
For a long time, it was assumed that the positive effect that wine and beer have on blood vessels is due to alcohol. A study by Ulm University Hospital now indicates that non-alcoholic beer and red wine have just as beneficial an effect in relation to arteriosclerosis as the alcoholic variety. 
|Diet full beer||147||35|
|wheat beer (non-alcoholic)||105||25|
In the meantime, studies have shown that body weight can theoretically be reduced by moderate beer consumption. However, the prerequisite for this is not eats more than usual. In addition, beneficial effects on fat and sugar metabolism, blood clotting and blood pressure regulation have also been observed. For example, the cholesterol levels in the blood that promote arteriosclerosis (LDL) decrease, while the protective cholesterol levels (HDL) increase.
In practice, regular consumption of beer nevertheless frequently leads to weight gain, the Beer belly, since beer increases the feeling of hunger more than other alcoholic beverages. Possibly for this reason, in many countries beer is traditionally consumed together with starchy, high-calorie snacks, z.B. in Japan, with cooked green soybeans (edamame). In particular, the bitter substances in hops are said to have an appetite-stimulating effect. In addition, beer contains in traces Simple sugars (monosaccharides), which can contribute to the development of obesity. Approximately 93% of the easily digestible carbohydrates are dextrins> 10 G, oligosaccharides and pentoses; the rest maltose and maltotriose.
The assumption that beer consumption and beer belly go together is widespread but disproved. In other languages, a big belly is also linguistically related to beer: In Japanese, a big belly means Biiruppara, in Swedish oilmage. Both translate to "beer belly". In France, one speaks of the ventre Kro, the "Kronenbourg belly", in allusion to the nickname of the largest French beer brewery. In the Austrian dialect exists the term "Gossermuskel", after the Styrian Gosser brewery. In Cologne, the beer belly is also called Pittermannchen after the 10-liter Kolsch barrel of the same name, in many other areas Wampe. In Berlin it is jokingly called Schultheiss tumor Spoken
|Carbonic acid||4-5 g|
|B1 (thiamine)||0.03-0.04 mg||1.0-1.4 mg|
|B2 (riboflavin)||0.3-0.4 mg||1.2-1.6 mg|
|B6 (pyridoxine)||0.4-0.9 mg||1,2-1,9 mg|
|H (biotin)||0.005 mg||0.0-0.06 mg or 0.15 mg |
|Nicotinic acid (niacin)||6-9 mg||13-18 mg|
|Folic acid||0.04-0.8 mg||0.4-0.6 or 0.2 mg |
|Pantothenic acid||0.9-1.5 mg||6 mg|
|Potassium||420-570 mg||2000 mg|
|Magnesium||80-100 mg||300-400 mg|
|calcium||40-100 mg||1000-1200 mg or 800 mg |
B vitamins and minerals
Alcohol consumes many vitamins and minerals when broken down in the body, so it is highly controversial whether beer can contribute to vitamin intake and balance mineral levels. Non-alcoholic beer is an isotonic drink and could theoretically be used by athletes as an energy drink as well. In fact, there are some athletes who drink non-alcoholic beer during their training sessions. However, whether it is as effective as beverages made specifically for athletes is debatable. In a work of the Technical University of Munich it was found that the accumulation of minerals and trace elements in beer has a beneficial effect on nerves and muscle strength, on the electrolyte balance, on the activation of enzymes and hormone control. Furthermore, iron and copper help in blood formation. Phosphorus promotes metabolism and magnesium strengthens the heart muscle. Zinc is needed for insulin formation, fluorine protects teeth from caries, and manganese makes vitamin B usable by the human organism in the first place.
Strongest beer in the world
Since brewer’s yeast dies at alcohol levels above 12%, supportive processes are required to achieve higher concentrations. These are, for example, the subsequent addition of fresh yeast, the removal of dead yeast cultures, the removal of water (Eisbock), the distillation of the brew, or other techniques. Various, mainly smaller breweries and inns have been advertising for years with the supposedly strongest beer in the world. In the meantime values over 40% are reached. Since there are no uniform international standards for how these beers may be produced, both the records and the beverages themselves should be treated with caution. 
- The strongest beer in the world currently (October 2012) comes from Germany and is the Schorschbock 57 with 57,5 Vol. % alcohol from the Middle Franconian brewery Schorschbrau from Gunzenhausen. 
- The strongest Scottish beer is currently considered to be (as of July 2011) Sink The Bismarck! with 41 % of the Scottish brewery Brew Dog.
- Two barrels of beer were the first freight carried by rail in Germany in 1835. This happened on the railroad line from Nuremberg to Furth. 
- In the U.S., beer with an alcohol content of more than 4.5% is often not considered to be an alcoholic beverage due to the wide variety of legislation governing alcoholic beverages beer, but as malt liquor sold.
- In Sweden, beer with more than 3.5% by volume is not freely available in stores, but only in branches of the state chain Systembolaget. Finland is a little more generous in this respect: here, beer up to 4.7% by volume is freely available, while higher-percentage beer is only sold in the state-owned so-called "Alko" stores.
- The highest density of breweries in the world is in Upper Franconia (see the list of breweries in Bavaria). Therefore, this area is also Beer franks in contrast to the one to the west Wine Franks, with which the greater importance of viticulture in Lower Franconia is taken into account.
- The Codex Hammurapi, one of the oldest collections of laws in the world, is devoted in particular detail to beer: numerous paragraphs deal with its production, the price of beer and its allocation. Babylonian provincial administrators and high priests, for example, were entitled to the maximum amount of about five liters per day, while the king’s ladies-in-waiting were still entitled to three liters. 
- In beer gardens and other places where beer is served, the beer from kegs is usually at the same temperature, whereas many people have very individual preferences regarding the correct temperature. Therefore, there are so-called beer warmers, with which a beer can be individually tempered.
- In Bavaria existed until April 1958 a beer price fixing and in Thuringia even until the beginning of 1990 (comparable to today’s book price fixing in Germany and Austria). 
- In Switzerland, since the 19. April 2012 the day of the Swiss beer. 
- Germany has been celebrating German Beer Day on the 23rd of each month since 1994. April.
An older drunkard from Hagen, he could not tolerate much. After three glasses of beer, perhaps also after four, it was already completely full up to the collar.
Portal: Beer – Overview of Wikipedia content on the topic of beer