Fishing methods – characteristics of special types of fishing and suitable waters

Angling refers to catching fish by means of a fishing rod; in some cases it is equated with fishing. In the past, fishing was as much a part of foraging as hunting and gathering berries, mushrooms and fruits. Today, fewer and fewer fishermen in Germany earn their money by selling their catch; for many people, fishing in the form of different Fishing methods but a popular hobby. Get an overview of the different methods of fishing.

All about various fishing methods

The fishing season regularly begins in the spring. From the beginning of March, many anglers wait eagerly for the first rays of sunshine to warm the waters. Then also the fish shoals become active again. Amateur anglers have different motives for picking up a fishing rod.

For most, fishing means recreation. They feel connected with nature and strengthen their immune system at the same time. There are not so few anglers who do not like to eat fish at all.

And then there are those that don’t kill the fish, but release it back into the water after catching it. This fishing method is called Catch and release denotes. However, whether it is appropriate for animals from the point of view of animal welfare may be controversial.

Requirements for fishing

Fishing equipment is needed, which in the simplest case consists of a line and a hook. However, depending on the fishing location, fishing method and target fish species, fishing success with this equipment alone will be meager. Every angler, even if it is an amateur angler, needs a special knowledge about the waters, about different fish species and about their protection and catching times and restrictions.

He must also know how the fish may be caught and killed from the point of view of animal welfare. In order to ensure that neither the individual animal is unnecessarily tortured nor the fish population is damaged, the state fishing law and the state fishing regulations apply in Germany as a matter of principle.

Angler in camouflage clothing holds a fishing rod made of brown wood and with green fishing line

Angler in camouflage clothing holds a fishing rod made of brown wood and with green fishing line

Fishing license

Every angler must prove his expertise before he receives a valid fishing license. This is just as the water license a basic requirement for legal fishing.

Anyone who is caught blackfishing is considered a fish poacher and must expect fines or even imprisonment, even ignorance does not protect against punishment. So it is safer to inform yourself in time about the respective regulations.

Many anglers belong to fishing clubs, which lease the fishing rights for certain waters from the owners. it is their responsibility to issue fishing permits for these areas. With the acquisition of the same the angler recognizes the respective water regulations.

For some time there was a discussion in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern about whether there should be special regulations for tourists when fishing. Finally, the adjacent Baltic Sea as well as the many lakes and rivers are a major attraction for vacationers.

Meanwhile, a tourist fishing license can be obtained for 28 days at a time from the state’s issuing offices. At the same time, the holidaymaker receives an information brochure informing him about his rights and duties as an angler.

Close up of fishing rod with reeled line on fishing reel

Close-up of fishing rod with reeled line on fishing reel

Basic equipment

The basic equipment for fishing includes a fishing rod and a fishing line, which in most fishing methods is spooled with a reel. In the front part of the line there is the leader, which is a line stretched between the main line and the hook.

Their material generally differs from that of the main line. If predatory fish are to be fished, the leader is made of steel so that it cannot be bitten through or torn by the catch.

At the front end of the leader the Hook attached, which can vary in size, construction and material. For large and heavy fish, for example, a stable hook is needed so that it cannot tear out of the mouth of the catch when it is being drilled, i.e. when it is being reeled in.

This would not only cause pain to the animal, but could also cause its death. The fish would no longer be able to feed sufficiently. In addition, the air balance could be disturbed and germs could enter the wound.

A responsible angler is always careful not to harm the animal unnecessarily. For example, after landing and with possible further injuries by a gaff, it saves him an unnecessarily long transport and kills him directly at the place of capture.

Different fishing methods

There are different fishing methods. Most anglers specialize in one or two methods and perfect them over time.

When fishing, the fish is attracted with a bait. As soon as it bites the bait, it also picks up the hook and can be pulled out of the water with the help of the fishing rod.

This requires some skill, because many fish naturally try to free themselves from the hook and swim back to freedom. Some fish cannot distinguish between hook and food – so in principle they can be caught without bait.

On the first sunny days the angler tries his luck in shallow waters, later he may go out to sea. Depending on the water he is on, it can be about sea fishing or deep-sea fishing act. the location of the fish determines which target species can be caught. According to this, the angler chooses his equipment and bait.

Although each fish species has preferred bait types, there are basic rules that the experienced angler follows. For example, he knows about the throttled metabolism of the fish in the spring. For this reason, it then selects only small baits, including maggots and dung worms.

A special form of fishing is the Fly fishing, where the so-called fly is the actual bait. It is an insect mimicked in shape and weight, originally mimicking a fly. Today’s flies can be made of plastic, of fur or animal hair.

Special equipment is needed so that the bait can be cast despite its light weight. This is a special fly line.

In addition to fly fishing drop shot fishing, ice fishing or feeder fishing the following are used. The fishing of predatory fish becomes Predator fishing called. In Germany, match fishing is used only for the preservation of fish stocks, in other countries it is practiced as a competition.

anglers with rods up to their thighs in the sea

angler with rod up to the thighs in the sea

In the following we will go into more detail about the different fishing methods.

Surf fishing

Surf fishing is fishing on a surf, where the angler is on the beach, respectively on a cliff or pier is located. A surge occurs when wind-driven waves roll from open water toward the shore or onto a cliff and rush over due to the change in current conditions as energy is dissipated.

Although the surf can be an excellent fishing place, its characteristics change due to different influences. On the North Sea coast, for example, the tides change the water level, which in turn affects the fish population. >In addition, natural or artificial changes in currents, aquatic vegetation, or bottom sediment accumulations can positively or negatively affect fish habitat.

In surf fishing with heavy weights fished. The bait is cast far. Therefore, the fishing rods are very long and special striking lines are used. Cod and flatfish are pulled out of the water in this way.

One assumes rod length of at least four meters from. In order to achieve even higher casting distances additional long casting leaders used. They stabilize the leader and minimize drag.

The line receives a very large centrifugal force due to heavy weights. It needs a good stability, for this reason a strike line is used as a leader. This can have 3 times the rod length.

In surf fishing Fresh meat or shred bait are used, which are thrown out up to more than 100 meters far. In particular, they are used to attract cod and flatfish in Germany. eels are accepted as bycatch.

drop-shop fishing

The method of drop-shop fishing is relatively new. Among other things it is used, to successfully fish for fish living in the weed to be able to.

To do this, the angler must naturally know the changing habits of each species. For example, in spring and fall, cod tend to stay in herbaceous areas because they find it particularly easy to access their food there.

If the angler uses other fishing methods than drop-shot, it can happen that the bait gets weedy when it is released. For drop-shot fishing Rubber bait used, which are selected in different sizes and colors. Eels bite on slender fish up to a length of ten centimeters.

cods can be attracted with very dark baits. Since they often stay close to the ground, the hook can be brought to about one meter above the underground. the relatively hard bite of the cod causes the drop-shot hook to almost always grip the fish’s mouth by itself.

There are different ways to guide the bait. It is either moved above the herbage. To do this, the angler must cast it and, after it sinks, very slowly bring it toward him. More proven, however, is the method of lowering the bait to the bottom in the drop-shot mount and maintaining bottom contact with the lead, briefly releasing and tugging on the taut line to mimic the presence of a forage fish.

Important for fishing success in drop-shot fishing is the separation of the fishing lure and weight. This makes the bait look weightless and more natural to the fish’s eye. In addition, it is easier for him to pick up a light bait than a heavy one.

If the fish has bitten, the rod tip lifts only very slightly. To catch the hook securely in the mouth, the line must be reeled in quickly. Due to the design of the drop-shot rig, even heavy weights can be separated from the bait.

Other species of fish that are fished with the drop-shot method include

  • the pike
  • the zander
  • the trout or
  • the perch.

Ice fishing

For ice fishing a Frozen water required, into which an ice hole is drilled, sawed or punched. The fish are hooked through this and pulled to the surface. Due to the weather conditions, ice fishing is especially popular in

operated. But it is also very popular in Germany during the winter months.

The equipment needed is a device with which a hole can be punched in the ice. Suitable for this purpose

  • a chainsaw
  • an ice drill or
  • with thinner ice surfaces also a pick, an axe, a hatchet or another splitting tool.

For safety reasons, fishing is only allowed on load-bearing ice surfaces; furthermore, the ice hole needs a visible marker. For fishing a rod with a length of up to 20 centimeters or just the line used, because the wide casting of the rod is not necessary.

The fishing line is stored on a reel. The use of a reel with transmission is not necessary. In addition, the line is given a spring, by the movement of which the bite can be detected.

For ice fishing are used either fresh bait used, which include worms, bait fish or fish shreds. Or the angler uses a special char spoon and the mormyshka, which, in the simplest case, is a lead solder.

Also typical is the use of water insect imitations, which are on the line in the up and down movement. For landing, as pulling fish to shore is called, the angler often uses a gaff.

This is a long pole equipped with a hook. The pieces of ice in the ice hole are removed with an ice scoop. For safety reasons, the angler uses spikes, which he hammers into the ice edge in case of danger.

Ice fisherman with his yellow fishing line above an ice hole

Ice fisherman with his yellow fishing rod over an ice hole

Catch and release

Originally, fishing served the purpose of acquiring food. This has not been the case for a long time. Quite a few anglers regard their hobby merely as a recreational sport in which the aim is to catch fish.

These are documented, photographed, weighed and measured, then some anglers release the catch back into the water. This type of fishing is called catch and release. Anglers who use this method are called "specimen hunters".

The reasons for using this method may be different, some anglers call it particularly animal friendly. On closer inspection, however, this statement should be denied, after all, all animals are subjected to a certain amount of stress during capture.

Despite special fishing tools and hook mounts, fish can suffer mechanical damage to the skin and mucous membranes when fishing. These, in turn, may entail various diseases.

Fishing and releasing is evaluated differently by the countries. In Germany the catch and release is partly forbidden. In the Netherlands, however, it is mandatory for some fish species.

Feeder fishing

Feeder fishing is with a special feeder rod operated. It consists of a filigree glass or carbon fiber tip and a stable blank.

This is needed to be able to cast the up to 250 gram heavy feeders on the braided line. The latter has little elasticity, so the bite must be noticeable by the twitching of the fine tip.

Feeding baskets are filled with groundbait, including maggots, which is thus close to the actual bait. When the bait is released, the groundbait spreads on the substrate and attracts the target fish closer to the hook. These are generally white or predatory fish such as the catfish or pike.

Since the weather and current conditions vary, it is important that the Tips adapted to the respective conditions are. For this reason they can be replaced. The trade offers very different tips, which are divided into light and heavy models.

While the light feeder rod bends quite willingly, the heavy feeder rod is a very immobile part, which is particularly suitable for flowing waters. If the right assembly is chosen, it is laid out on the bottom, the line must be tightened. Shortly after the bite, the twitching at the feeder tip can be seen.

Two feeding baskets for feeder fishing against a white background

Fly fishing

Fly fishing is a very popular way of fishing. With the help of a special fly rod or fly reel the bait is thrown into the water. An additional weight is not needed here, because the special casting technique can achieve even such large distances.

Almost all fish can be caught with the method of fly fishing. Traditionally it is used for

  • Char
  • Trout and
  • Grayling

applied. The fishing method of fly fishing is popular mainly in Scandinavia, but also in Germany there are many fly fishermen.

When fly fishing, a light-weight lure is used, which might not develop sufficient centrifugal forces when cast. Due to its light weight and original shape, it is known as Fly called. Even today, many lures imitate a fly, as well as other insects as well as prey animals are imitated.

Often the Bait made from a mix of natural and synthetic materials, for example from feathers, fur and plastic. Flies can be purchased as ready-made baits in stores, but most anglers produce them themselves. Flies can be divided into wet and dry flies, nymphs and streamers.

A hook is attached to the fly. Unlike other fishing methods, the leader in fly fishing is not equipped with lead, nor is a flasher with its own weight used. Nevertheless, it must be possible to cast the lure. This is possible by means of a special fishing line called a fly line.

It itself has a higher weight. In addition, the angler must use a special casting technique that is also different from other casting techniques.

To do this, he angles the rod arm, with the rod tip pointing toward the water surface. Then lifts the rod tip and moves it forward and backward. The sequence of movements is most easily illustrated on the face of a clock.

In the backward movement, the rod tip is at 1 o’clock. The forward movement and thus the cast are triggered when the rod tip is between 10 and 11 o’clock. Then the angler lowers it to 9 o’clock.

But not only the correct movement is crucial for the exact placement of the fly. In addition, the angler must develop a sense of the resistance under which the line can be unwound without problems.

If the angler wants to cast the fly further, he forms loops with the line in one hand, which are gradually released during the forward cast. In this way Casting distances up to 30 meters achieve.

Red bait fly on a fishing hook for fly fishing


The Hegene is a part of the fishing equipment, it is also known under the designation Leader known. The hegene is mainly used in sport fishing, The aim is to catch as many fish as possible from different depths at once.

This is possible because of the construction of the hegene. It consists of one line, from which up to five short individual lines come off.

One bait can be attached to each of these lines, nymphs are often used for this purpose. Also the end of the Hegene is equipped with a bait or it receives a sinker.

Different types of fish can be caught with the Hegene method. In northern Germany, it is mainly used for catching perch.

Here, a maximum of three baits may be thrown at once. In the Alps whitefish are caught in this way.

The target fish species determines how the tip of the fishing rod should be. For whitefish, for example, a delicate model is needed, yet the bite can hardly be indicated.

When hegene fishing, the angler lets the hegene sink to the bottom and then brings it up a few turns. Then he moves the rod up and down in a certain radius.

If a bite is noticed, the drill must be carried out immediately. In this method, the fish is slowly pulled to the surface so that the hook does not break out. For some target fish species, it is possible to bring the lures under a float assembly so that the lures drift by themselves at different heights.

Deep sea fishing

Deep sea fishing is a fishing method to catch large fish species, which can weigh well over 100 kilograms. The most common method of fishing is trolling, which involves. Common target fish species in the Caribbean or Indian Ocean include

  • the shark
  • the swordfish or also
  • the tuna.

Although catching smaller marine fish in the North Sea and Baltic Sea is actually called sea angling, the term deep-sea angling is also used to catch cod and cod respectively. To deep sea fishing runs a seaworthy fishing cutter from, on which the local fishermen often take tourists or locals.

These are used as auxiliaries, for example to haul in the nets. If the fishing areas are fished excessively, it can lead to the extinction of species.

The purpose of deep-sea fishing is not always to bring fish ashore for consumption. Catch and release is also popular among sport fishermen.

It means that the fish are dragged to the boat with nets, photographed, registered, weighed and measured. Afterwards it is released again.

Although the supporters of this method consider their behavior to be gentle to the species, it is unlikely to meet the standards of animal welfare. Any free-living animal that is cornered and captured is subjected to at least some unnecessary psychological stress.

In addition, there may be physical damage caused, among other things, by the mechanical stimuli of the net. However, animal conservationists themselves also use this fishing method when they want to mark and register animals for scientific purposes.

Man standing on a boat in the open sea with a blacktip shark on his line

Carp fishing

Carp fishing is not to be confused with fishing in a carp pond. The latter is done by means of a trawl to transfer the carp stock of a pond to another body of water, or to prepare the animals for sale.

When fishing for carp single fish with the bait caught. This can consist of different ingredients and partly be made by the fisherman himself.

Among other things carp bite boilies, which are cooked balls of dough, to which different flavors can be added. Boiled potatoes, bread or nuts are also very popular as bait.

On warm days carp like to stay in upper water regions, so the bait must not be let down too deep. So that it floats on the water surface, the fishing line can be greased.

It is also possible to fish for carp with the method of feeder fishing. For this purpose, the assembly is provided with a feed basket containing a certain feed mixture. After lowering the bait, the food spreads around the basket and attracts the carp closer to the bait.

When fishing for carp, the angler must have a lot of patience. Often it takes a few days before a bite is indicated.

For this reason carp anglers often use Accessories such as

  • the electronic bite indicator
  • the carp chair or
  • the rod-pod device.

The latter is used to hold several rods and a bite indicator, which emits a sound when a fish bites.

Angler in blue rain jacket and baseball cap holds a huge carp in his arms

Match fishing

The purpose of match fishing is Stock care. It is an event organized by the anglers’ association, which serves to register and regulate the stock on special waters. If isolated fish species were to be left in abundance, there would soon be a shift in aquatic plants and animals within the natural habitat. Possibly species would be threatened with extinction.

To prevent this, stocks that are too high are fished and then killed or relocated. How high the respective stocks may be within the waters, with which fishing gear and bait may be fished and how long such a match may last, is prescribed by the countries.

Outside Germany, match fishing is a real competition, often associated with catch and release. As fishing equipment participants use Head and match rods, bolognese and tip rods. In Germany this sport is not allowed.

Sea fishing

For sea fishing, a cutter is needed to take the anglers out to sea. Often this is chartered. In Northern Europe, sea fishing is practiced on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea.

Depending on the target species, cod, mackerel, saithe, plaice or herring are fished, whereby the anglers must comply with certain fishing regulations and closed seasons.

For example, the beginning of March marks the start of the herring season; Hanseatic cities such as Wismar hold regular events called Herring Days, a "herring full" fishing rod fish are available for purchase. In the months of July and August is the main fishing season for mackerel. their presence is very reliably indicated by large flocks of seagulls.

In addition, the fishermen use a Echolocation system, to be able to search the ground and locate the fish. Different types of bait are used for sea fishing, these can be, among others, fish scraps or pilks.

The latter are lowered to the bottom after the cutter has reached the fishing spot. The subsequent rod movements imitate the presence of prey and encourage the fish to bite.

angler with a baseball cap stands on a boat next to the fishing rod and proudly holds up a huge tuna fish

Night fishing

Night fishing usually takes place in the dark, so the angler has a Special equipment needs. Among other things, lighting is a part of it.

The trade offers different models of headlamps and bending lights. Often a flashlight is used.

Since visibility is still limited, many anglers use an electronic bite indicator or an eel bell. Which accessories to use is determined, among other things, the target fish species.

Among the target fish in night fishing are all nocturnal species, to which belong for example

  • the carp
  • the catfish
  • the eel and
  • the zander

count. Many of them are founding close to the bottom. When night fishing, the angler needs a lot of patience; sometimes a fishing trip lasts several days on.

Depending on the weather, appropriate clothing is required. Possibly the angler decides to use a tent. In addition, the typical equipment for night fishing includes hot drinks and some provisions.

Silhouette of a lone angler in his boat on a lake at sunset

Predator fishing

Predators feed on fish and other prey that are able to flee quickly. Often they lie in wait for their prey. Among the best known predatory fish

  • the perch
  • the pike
  • the trout
  • the salmon
  • the catfish and
  • the eel.

In order to fish for a particular target fish species, the angler must know its habitat, its preferences in terms of bait and its peculiarities. Likewise, he will choose the appropriate fishing method.

When fishing for predatory fish, the most important thing is to use the right bait. These are often made of plastic, metal or wood and simulate the movements of injured fish that are prey for predators.

Eel, for example, is most effectively caught by night fishing. The bait can be worms, which are placed directly on the bottom. For this purpose, the ground rod is weighted with ground lead.

When landing, make sure that the eel is quickly released from the line. Otherwise, when winching during his fight, tangles occur in the line, which can be released only with a great expenditure of time.

The zander and perch, on the other hand, bite better when spinning. In addition, predatory fish can be fished with the methods of poaching and stippling.

The movements with the rod should be made so that the bait imitates a prey animal. Slow lifting and lowering and a slight twitching of the line mimic, for example, staggering movements of an injured fish.

When selecting equipment, the angler will want to ensure that the line has a certain stability. Otherwise the predatory fish will bite through them.

As a leader is suitable model made of steel. Moreover, during the drill, the fish will use all opportunities to escape; predatory fish are among the strong fighters. The brush teeth of the catfish, for example, can wear through a line in a very short time.

The hook must also be large enough and stable. Drills of the best steel quality are suitable. If they are under pressure, they must not bend up under any circumstances.

It is worthwhile to check the soldering points with a magnifying glass before use. Although a landing net would be best to pick up the predatory fish after the drill, it would have to have special dimensions due to the size of the catch. It might be safer to land the fish with the gaff.


The trolling, which is also known under the name of Trolling is called fishing with a rod from a moving boat. This can be operated by the engine or by muscle power.

The movement of the lure is achieved by the relatively slow speed of the boat. This is the best way to imitate prey animals.

The target fish species include in particular the predatory fish species

  • Pike
  • Perch
  • salmon and
  • Trout.

For fishing the eel at night, trolling is less suitable, because this fish species prefers the motionless bait in the darkness. In the daytime, the rod can be cast from the trolling boat to catch eels. This can be a conventional fishing rod with a fixed line or a deep-set casting rod.

Spin fishing

Spin fishing is a fishing method that is used to catch predatory fish. It finds From the water or from the shore instead of.

Here, no stationary fishing rod is used; rather, the bait is moved constantly. In particular, the reel imitates the movements of a prey animal and entices the predatory fish to bite. The baits are mainly made of artificial materials.

Depending on the target fish species, the bait is selected. For example, wobblers can be used, which are usually made of wood or plastic. They have the property of sinking only slowly, so that they can imitate the swimming movements of prey fish well.

To make them look even more real, plugs with so-called Diving scoops be equipped. A special type of wobblers are crankbaits, which hold metal balls in their plastic housing.

When the wobblers move, the balls start to rotate. The wobbler vibrates. Not only the movements of the bait, but also the sound it makes, entice predators to take the bait.

In contrast to the designated crankbaits, which have a stronger diameter, slender plugs can be used, which are called twitchbaits. Other wobblers, due to their design, create turbulence in the water, which also attracts predatory fish.

In addition, plugs made of rubber can be used. They usually appear more natural, but have a higher weight.

Tip fishing

When fishing for perch, a fishing rod is used, whose Rod between 3 and 16.5 meters can be long. There is no reel; the line is mounted directly on the tip.

It is maximum as long as the rod itself. It is often chosen to be many times shorter in length. This allows the lure to be guided safely, which is particularly important when ice fishing, for example.

Among other things, tippling is used to catch white fish, which include some species of carp fish. For the most part it is peaceful fish that live in fresh water.

The fishing rods are equipped with floats so that the bite of the target fish can be detected. Worms, bread, corn and maggots can be used as bait.

More on the subject on the Internet

ASV Bremerhaven-Wesermunde e.V. Homepage of the fishing club Bremerhaven-Wesermunde e.V. – Dates, information, board, waters, fish, checkout, posts& Application form. – reports from fishermen for fishermen Here anglers can publish their experiences and catches. Furthermore, every user can use the advertisement exchange free of charge. The photo of the week completes the page. Hobby Interesting thematic articles on sea fishing, inland fishing and fly fishing as well as an extensive fish lexicon, tips and tricks for fishing and country information on the most beautiful fishing regions. Rhine information for anglers in the Rhine area. Many useful tips and suggestions on angling, all German laws and regulations on fishing at a glance as well as a free visitor catch-ga

Fitting to the topic


  • Andreas Janitzki 1 times 1 of fishing: Fishing success guaranteed , Kosmos , 2008 , ISBN 3440113396
  • Hans Eiber Angeln – so geht’s: From beginner to professional , BLV Buchverlag , 2004 , ISBN 3405166489
  • Thomas Finkbeiner Fishing in the North Sea and Baltic Sea , Kosmos , 2009 , ISBN 3440119971
  • Martin Wehrle Fishing in a relaxed way: The beginner’s course , Kosmos , 2006 , ISBN 3440104427
  • Specimen Hunting Group Dortmund Fishing in winter: Extra: The right clothing , Kosmos , 2004 , ISBN 3440097285
  • Trevor Housby Fishing. The Encyclopedia , Muller Ruschlikon , 1995 , ISBN 3275011626
  • Armin Gollner The fishing book for beginners , Ulmer (Eugen) , 2007 , ISBN 3800155680
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  • John Bailey The Kosmos book of fishing , Kosmos , 2007 , ISBN 344010690X
  • Klaus Schmidt Basic Fishing Course. A book of the magazine ‘Blinker’ , Kosmos , 2005 , ISBN 3440104346
  • Benno Sigloch, Andreas Janitzki, Bernd Eschenauer and Sven Helmes Handbook Fishing: Basics, fishing technique, equipment. With questions and answers of the fishing exam , Komet , 2008 , ISBN 3898367223
  • Benno Sigloch Small fishing school: Handbook for beginners , Naumann& Goebel , 2005 , ISBN 3625103621
  • Frank Weissert Encyclopedia of freshwater fish: Successful fishing. Safely determine , Muller Ruschlikon , 2007 , ISBN 3275016253

Our articles are written on the basis of sound scientific sources and the latest research at the time of writing and are regularly checked by experts. How we work and keep our articles up to date, we describe in detail on this page.

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