Mining in Upper Franconia

The Upper Franconian mining districts were partly in the Fichtelgebirge, which was under the rule of the Hohenzollerns until around 1800, and partly in the Franconian Forest, which was mostly in the former prince-bishopric of Bamberg. Mining underground is from the middle of the 14. Century proves. It reached its peak in the 15., 16. and 17. Century. Partially revived, individual deposits were still mined until the middle of the 20. Exploited at the end of the nineteenth century. Only in exceptional cases does mining continue to the present day. Important mining centers were Arzberg, Goldkronach, Kupferberg, Weibenstadt, Wunsiedel, Lichtenberg, Fichtelberg and Naila. Gold, silver, copper, iron ore and tin were mined, from the 18. In the nineteenth century also lignite and hard coal.

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Mining in Upper Franconia

Mining for precious metals, iron, tin, copper and minerals was already carried out in the Fichtelgebirge and Franconian Forest in the Middle Ages. The sovereigns in the eastern part of Upper Franconia were the Nuremberg burgraves as heirs of the Andechs-Meranians since 1248/1260 and in the western part the high diocese of Bamberg. The mining industry, especially in the Fichtelgebirge, promoted the acquisition and expansion of the two Franconian territories of the Burgraves. The Hochstift was active in the Franconian Forest; however, the economic focus of Hochstift mining was in its possessions in Carinthia.

There’s a battle raging in the public sphere over freedom of speech – or a sham debate? What else is allowed to say and who should determine that? Questions that also cause controversy on the other side of the Atlantic.

"One is allowed to say this." This phrase, which has long eked out an omnipresent but little-noticed existence in common parlance, has made an amazing career in recent years. From a grumpy buzzword used at the pub table, it has become the expression of a relevant social current that believes it is no longer allowed to speak its mind.

SPD chancellors Willy Brandt (left) and Helmut Schmidt each governed for long periods in constellations in which the CDU was stronger. The decisive factor at the time was the votes of the FDP. Kurt Rohwedder

It sounds logical: Whoever gets the most votes in the election will become chancellor – according to the first forecasts on election night, either SPD candidate Olaf Scholz or CDU candidate Armin Laschet. Read more about the results in our Livticker.

But it’s not quite as simple as you might think at first, even if it will eventually be clear who got more votes. Because the Germans do not elect their chancellor directly, but the choice is made by the new Bundestag, which will be elected this Sunday. Whoever gets the majority of the votes becomes chancellor.

© freepik – mko

A winter garden, a carport, a tree house for the children – around the home there is always something to build. But the creativity of the builders is often legally limited. Where is it allowed to expand? Who must be asked? And when do you need a building permit?

Which cultivation is permit-free?

The building permit law is regulated differently from federal state to federal state in the respective state building code. It may well be that you need a building permit in one federal state for the construction of a carport or an extension and not in another federal state.

Are you creative, motivated and ambitious?? Congratulations! Then you are one of many. According to research, these attributes are among the most frequently mentioned Strengths in the cover letter. For the recruiter this means inflationary use, that at least a certain percentage of applicants are not all that. For you, this means: You can’t stand out from your competitors with this. But there are also ways in which you can express your Qualities in the application skillfully put you in the right light.

How to correctly formulate your strengths in the cover letter

Many applicants have a hard time formulating their own strengths in the cover letter. The problem? Little space and so many positive qualities. Resorting to bullet points and lists sounds downright tempting, but it’s still not a good idea.

Adopted from Anglophone usage, it gives a nice metaphor and recommendation for jobs, professional contacts and relationships: Never burn bridges that you may have to walk over again. When you Break off bridges, you only leave scorched earth and at the same time cancel any future opportunity. Breaking bridges has consequences – not always only positive ones. With every bridge, a relationship is lost that is difficult to restore. A risky approach, especially on the job, where contacts can make the difference between professional success and failure. But no rule without exceptions. Sometimes it’s actually better if you burn all bridges behind you and draw a line under it. What reasons there may be for this and how you can manage to rebuild a bridge…

➠ Contents: What to expect

Clarification and medical history of apparent death

The medical theories of antiquity are largely forgotten with the fall of the Roman Empire. Thus, medicine in the Middle Ages initially consisted of improvisation and superstition, [1] if treatment was given at all – because illnesses were God’s work and only he could decide whether recovery would occur or not – then usually with very surprising therapeutic approaches. With the Crusades, Islamic medicine finds its way into the West. It is mainly based on the ancient theories of Hippocrates (ca. 460 – 370 v. Chr.) and von Galen (ca. 130 – 200 n. Chr.), co-founder of the four-fluid theory, according to which a person is only healthy if the four bodily fluids blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile are in balance. [2] Due to the dogma of leaving the body intact under all circumstances, two strands develop in the treatment of patients: doctors deal exclusively with internal medicine, surgical treatments fall into the hands of so-called hand surgeons who, without academic training, pull teeth, amputate and drill into skullcaps, all without serious anesthesia, not to mention observing hygiene. Even if there are already some experts who really know how to preserve life, the obscure methods of treatment not infrequently lead to the death of the patient sooner or later. This is how the health care of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is similar to the doctors of the 17th century. The medicine of the twentieth century has become suspect, and the practical remedies of the time – emetics, pulverized genitals, feces and urine, and other now questionable things – have long since ceased to convince even those who prescribe them. [3] The epidemics of that time always cause chaotic conditions, they bring an almost unbelievable amount of dead, depopulate whole regions and the corpses are hastily buried in mass graves without careful examinations. This is where Bondeson sees a possible beginning of the apparent death discussion, as many doctors in the 17. It seems that the scientists of the nineteenth century had already been aware of the danger that in this chaos fatal errors of judgment could occur. [4] He sees the proof among other things in the discovery of bones during an excavation of a plague mass grave of 1722 in Marseille, to which a good two and a half centimeters long bronze needle stuck in the big toe, presumably intentionally driven under the toenail, in order to examine the entrance of the death. [5] Such methods will be considered in more detail in the next chapter.

While physicians prefer to leave the question of the meaning and nature of death to philosophers and theologians, questions of prediction and exact fixation of the time of death appear to be important for medicine. [6] Since individual cases of apparent death have been known since antiquity, other physical changes are used in addition to the negative breath sample to determine actual death. [7] Traditionally, this is generally pulselessness, pale and cold skin, eye changes and finally death spots and rigor mortis. [8] As a rule, the judgment of relatives is sufficient to convince the doctor that death has occurred. [9] Even if recently there are individual voices of reflection, the general state of research is that until the middle of the 18th century, the blood-letting was not a problem. Twentieth-century apparent death is not a serious problem, either for physicians or for the public consciousness. [10]

The physicians of 17. and 18. The medical science of the twentieth century has to deal with ever new findings and to give up traditional ideas. The emerging questions of medicine concern the whole person, because how can one really heal, if one does not even know what "life" is? is what it means to be "sick" to be and where a disease originates in the first place? [11] A lively discussion developed, with the teachings of the mathematician, physicist and philosopher Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) in the mid-17th century causing a furor in Germany. The first thing to be mentioned is the nineteenth-century physiology of the body, which describes the still largely incomprehensible physiological processes of the body as quite simple physical ones – namely heat, pressure, expansion, movement – and thus reveals the organism. [12] At first, dissections remained forbidden, but with the ravages of the plague and the fervent desire for a cure, they met with increasing acceptance. [13] With the advent of the natural sciences, the dead body is soon reified, [14] the sanctity of the body finally dissolved. The new interest of medicine does not shy away from anatomical experiments, also resorts to vivisection of animals, and thereby discovers more and more the innermost part of the human being. Thus, in 1628, one of the most groundbreaking discoveries in the history of medicine occurs: William Harvey (1578 – 1657) discovers the circulation of the blood, thus refuting Galen’s theory, which had been valid for centuries. [15] With his intention to support Galen’s theories, which he considered to be "minus firma" ("not quite sure"), it completely overturns the traditional view of the heart and its function and thus calls into question one of the most common methods of treatment: bloodletting. [16] The physician Tankred Koch considers bloodletting, which is automatically prescribed for almost all diseases and which Hippocrates had already ordered in his time, to be one of the most terrible means and the cause of many cases of apparent death. [17] Koch reported cases in which up to two and a half liters of blood were taken, and since plague germs multiplied faster than red blood cells, or blood overloaded with typhoid or cholera germs became thicker and thicker and less and less capable of transporting oxygen, one could quickly imagine that the poor people would soon show the signs of a "vita minima" (literally, "reduced life.", medical term for apparent death) show. [18] If, however, there is a last revolt of the supposed dead, the first remedy is to bring him back to life: Bloodletting. [19] It was not until the time of Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, when the four-juice theory was replaced by the theory of vitalism – the view of a supernatural, immaterial life force in organisms – that the frequency of bloodletting decreased. [20] Already 100 years earlier, Harvey argues that nature shows the divine order of things, that the blood, for example, has an inherent power of self-motion that drives it through the veins to the center of the body. [21] This view will be dealt with in more detail in the following chapter. First of all, however, the attitude of the Enlightenment thinkers shall be summarized roughly and thus finally the way to the debate on apparent death shall be found.

The terms "unemployed" and "seeking work" are often used interchangeably in everyday life. In fact, however, there are two different processes behind it. If you lose your job, you must usually register as both unemployed and seeking work. Otherwise, you risk reductions in your unemployment benefits. What is the difference between the two and which deadlines you have to observe, you can find out here.

The correct notification is decisive for the unemployment benefit

Regardless of whether you are giving notice yourself, a fixed-term employment contract is expiring or your employer is handing you notice: as soon as it is foreseeable that you will soon be without a job and will need new employment to support yourself, you must notify the Employment Agency. Immediately. The legal basis for this is § 38 of the Third Book of the Social Code (SGB III). If you violate this rule, you will be subject to sanctions for unemployment benefits.

When do you have to register as unemployed??

Good personnel is the treasure of every entrepreneur. Only with motivated and qualified employees can the company’s goals be achieved. All the more annoying when a shot turns out to be a mistake in retrospect. Then many employers wonder how they can terminate the employee concerned. Restructuring in the company can also be a reason for job cuts. But protection against dismissal carries great weight in Germany. The law firm WILDE BEUGER SOLMECKE has been advising companies for years on how to carry out terminations in a legally secure manner.

Employees in Germany – unlike in the USA, for example – are well protected against arbitrary dismissal. This does not mean, however, that employees are not dismissable. However, there are some points for companies to consider when parting with an employee. Otherwise, it can quickly happen that the dismissal is overturned by the labor court. This is another reason why legal advice is indispensable when giving notice of termination.

The following text outlines the individual legal hurdles of a termination in order to subsequently provide employers with recommendations for action.

With the right combination of tableware, table linen and decorations, you can conjure up a festive atmosphere on your holiday table. We explain how to set the table properly and what the ideal cutlery arrangement should look like. Delight your guests with a perfectly arranged festive table setting!

You will find out in this article:

  1. The right table linen
  2. The matching tableware
  3. Arrange glasses and cutlery perfectly
  4. Table decoration for the final touch

The right table linen

The first step is to place a beautiful tablecloth on the table. On the classic festive table fits best a smooth white, wrinkle-free cloth, that completely covers the table. On each side hang it about 30 cm above the edge of the table. So no one gets stuck sitting down and involuntarily clears the dishes.